Egypt’s Daytime North Star
The so-called experts try to make the process of finding true north difficult. It is no big deal, the process is simple. The first thing that the surveyor would need to do is build a sundial. It is not that hard. Just put a long stick (Gnomon) in the ground or a tall stone obelisk, (which is called The Chief Corner Stone1)and that obelisk, would be the best tool to use. To make sure that obelisk is plumb the surveyor used a plumb bob and its string. Gravity and the weight of the plumb is what will hold the string straight and the deviation of the distance from the string to the obelisk can be adjusted to make the obelisk plumb. Then for the next few days he would mark the length of the shadow, and when the surveyor found the shortest shadow several days in a row. That is the point the Sun is straight south from the end of the shadow of The Chief Corner Stone, which explains why Obelisks2 have a pointed top (pyramidion). Therefore, he now had a perfect north-south line between the obelisk and the tip of its shadow. Our surveyor probably did this measurement in mid-to late December3 which would be the best time because his “shortest line” would be longest. The surveyor then placed a second taller obelisk on the north side to line up with the first at noon (time sun). Our surveyor now had an “accurate” north-south line to due north not magnetic north.
Our surveyor then sent a Horpakrate, the Little Sun4 (a mirror) to the north Horizon so that the operators can target his obelisk with their mirrors reflected light. Then the surveyor walk back until he could see only The Chief Cornerstone tip and just the tip of the second obelisk just above the chief Corner stone’s pyramidion. The surveyor would then signaled the Horpakrate, the Little Sun until the reflection is setting on the top of his obelisk’s pointed top (pyramidion)5 that Horpakrate, the Little Sun is north and the farther away the more accurate. At 10 miles that artificial pole star is more accurate than a laser. The Horpakrate, the Little Sun would become an artificial Day time North Star that was an accurate point to north to the left or right for some distance on any given east-west line: but again the farther away the better. The mirror, Horpakrate could be moved as the building progressed the same distance from the starting point on an east/west line giving unheard of accuracy.
“The line of light’s foundation”
Our surveyor then would take a stone that was true and square and placed on top of it on its expected north south line: what is called an Egyptian Stone Sundial6 an ancient transit gun site. The word for this tool in Arabic for this device is al-idhâdah, “ruler”, where it signifies the same thing, in Greek and Latin, it is respectively called dioptra, “the line of light’s foundation”, and linea fiduciae, “fiducial line” also known as the trusted line. Our surveyor would affix the dioptra’s long straight base that will sit on the surveyor block. Now if the surveyor could just see the Horpakrate or artificial Daytime North Star as he sited down the tool: good. If he was off, the mirror’s reflection will on one side or the other of the far end of the tool. The surveyor would adjust the stone and his dioptra so he could just see the reflection setting on the top of his near and far end of his transit: the surveyor block was then dead on north. From that point on just set the next block, the surveyor would just site down the Egyptian dioptra, transit from the last aligned block’s corner “marker point”, and the next block’s north base line until he could see the mirror’s refection on top of both points and then his line was dead-on north. Two small plumb bobs on strings were attached to the ends of the dioptra which gave the location of two points aligned with the bright mirror on the HORUSion and the position of the starting point plumb bob and of the second plumb bob, an accurate line of all three points due north, the longer the transit the more accurate the line. The model for those plumbs is an inverted pyramid.
For the surveyor’s East west line he need two mirrors or two Ra-Hararkhte, Horus7 of the Two Horizons one on each horizon (East and West) though surveyor still need to use the Chief Corner Stone and second obelisk / corner stone as his marker for North and South and use what is now known as Pythagoras’ three, four, five principle. That is how you square 90 degree corners. The square of the hypotenuse is equal to the square of both the sides.8 Therefore (3×3) + (4×4) = 25 and 5×5=25. The four line would be along your verifiable north south line and connects to line the three will be your new east, west line. The three line other end is moved until the ten line touches both the north end of the four line which is permanent and the east end of the six line which is moved to allow that to occur. When the ends of the two lines are five apart, you are square because all triangles with that 6,8,10 ratio have a 90 degree corner and you have “a dead on” east west line. All our surveyor needed to do was measure with something that will not stretch, like a metal chain and the larger unit of measurement the better. Then, from the end of the surveyor triangle on his East or West side he sited to the horizon just like surveyor did with his North line and line up his Ra-Hararkhte mirror with the top of his Chief Corner Stone. The west one is used for the morning and the east for the afternoon. Then the surveyor used his Egyptian dioptra, and the East or West Ra-Hararkhte just like the North Horpakrate he then aligned his test block with the East or star of the West how be it an artificial Day time star just like his artificial Day time North Star. Finely he aligned his test block with his Egyptian Stone Sun Dial or dioptra.
In drafting before there were computers, a straight edge and compass or string were used to make a line perpendicular to the base line by taking a compass or string; set it longer than ½ the line length. And then scribe an arc from each end of that line. The arcs will meet and cross in two places above and below the base line, draw a straight line that hits both points and that will be at a 90 degree to the base line. If you have a chain with a preset measurement and arc that chain that is attached to the base line that has been set with the Chief Corner Stone the top of that arc will be at a 90 degree angle to the base. Moreover, every point on that new line that touches the top of those arcs will be the same length.9
The survey lines radiating from the Chief Corner Stone and the artificial stars were very important. If a stone were too big and touched one of those optical lines the oversize stone would be (broken) chipped way to fit. On the other hand, if the stone were too small it would be totally smashed to a size that could be easily hauled away by the cleanup men. The process was easier to have a new stone made and the small stone crushed, so the miss-sized stone would be out of the way. A Hebrew text about this process was written of the
Corner Stone Lines 10
“And whoever falls on this stone will be broken and whomever it falls upon it will be destroyed”
The Great pyramid has three Corner Stone Sockets, of those only the South East corner is the Corner marker, the rest are taken from that point. The South East corner is where the Chief Corner stone was placed.11.
Isaiah put it this way12
“A foundation (the starting point), a stone a tried stone (square and true),
a precious corner stone, a sure foundation (Starting point)
, he that believes shall not be afraid (if his line is true or not).
And I will make justice to the measuring line (metal so that the chain will not stretch),
and righteousness to the plummet (the plumb bob)
The Chief Corner Stone has been miss-understood to mean the “head” this word in the Coptic Egyptian has a different vowel sign than the word “Chief” but pronounced the same “reshey,13“ corner stone, ergo, the Capstone for of the pyramid, which The Great Pyramid never had nor will never have. When the building was completed The Chief Corner Stone along with the other corner stones were removed leaving only their sockets at the Corners.
“The Stone that the builder rejected has become the Chief Cornerstone. 14.
“Who laid out the foundations of the Earth? Declare, if you have understanding.
Who has laid its measure, if you know? Who has stretched the line upon it?
Upon what are its limits resting or who lain the Chief Corner stone.15“
Doctor Gene Scott who received his doctorate from The University of California, Berkeley, said in a dissertation on The Pyramid referenced D. Davison and Petries: ‘‘that the height of The Pyramid is of the same ratio of that of the radius of the Earth at it polar axes through the center to the line of the Equator, also that the height of the extended lines of The Pyramid face angle (52 degrees 51 minutes) the sides extending past the platform it is equal ratio of the polar radius of the Moon.16”. Davidson figures also shows a formula in the length of the base of the Pyramid that are equal to the three years of Earth (the Solar or Tropical year or 365.242465 days, Sidereal or Stellar year or 365.256471536-days and Anomalistic or Orbital year or 365.25997317 days)17denoting that the Pyramid is a scale model of Earth in a Pyramid form.18
The Pyramid’s Star Alignments of the Passages were important and was quite simple to accomplish. The surveyor would take four Egyptian dioptras; place them at the lowest spot of where his shaft will be above ground spacing for the top, bottom, and sides. Center them in the middle of where the surveyor wants his shaft to be. Then, that night he would, align two points on each Egyptian dioptra to the star he wanted his shaft to align with both on the vertical and the horizontal. The dioptra was locked into the position that so it would not move. The surveyor could now go to bed. The next morning they took four mirrored Ankh with very small mirrors set to match with the same dimensions as the four dioptras, and then align the mirrors with the surveyor’s solid Egyptian dioptra with their two points: it was be best as far away as possible. The closer the surveyor’s mirror is, the smaller the mirror must be. This Ankh shaft must be made immovable though the mirror will need to rotate to redirect the Sun. If the distance is too close to the work site, the mirrors must be smaller. The surveyor used a mirror just like his North Horpakrate (mirror) to align each side of your shaft with a dioptra against the block as you set them, using your mirrors to align each side though you can double check the sides for square with the 3,4,5 principle.
THE BOTTOMLESS PIT
The Descending Passage
There were many problems with this passageway as you may know. The descending passage was partly above ground and was merely stacked stone. The first portion was not that bad, and fortunately, with a full battery of Ankhs mirrors to heat the stone and fracture the stone the work went quite well. Even so, as the tunnel became deeper, fewer and fewer mirrors of the Aten, solar furnace system could make the angle even though it was at the best angle for the solar furnace at that point on the globe. Then they had to move back to the older style of fracturing rock and the Caliph’s Brush Burning system. Things went from bad to worse. That was the point that a second tunnel (the Well shaft) was started to allow the smoke and steam from the process to escape, which expedited the finishing of the tunnel.
When the shaft is “Deep enough” or to the lowest point below ground, place four candles at its base, one at each corner then reverse the surveyor’s dioptras to use the light of the candle as his survey point. This makes the process easier than building a tremendous skyscraper to place his Ankh on for the higher parts of the structure that is above ground. Or he can just use a stretched string if his shaft is under water. Attach the string to a stationary location on the plane he was working with then place a “joule block” under the string. Then place a second matching “joule block “on that same plane at some distance. Now he would stretch string so it was as close to the “joule block” without touching. The string is as effective as a laser if stretched tight enough and if the wind and water are calm.
Now that you understand the basic survey techniques on the horizontal; we are now able to move to the vertical. The area that was to be used as the foundation would have a dike or dam built around it. Then the area behind the dam was filled with water. The pond was filled to cover all the high spots completely around the building site to include the area of the first course of rock and the apron around it with water. Then slowly drain the water: the men would mark the high spots until the water was gone at that point the foundation plane was established. All the high spots were leveled using the Ankh, solar furnace system; heating the high spots and fracturing them with water and vinegar. The main change was the Ram/A frame was now on the vertical dropping with a rope and pulley and boom-boom-boom. Then remove the muck. This system of filling, marking, and muck removal was used until the building site was level.
To make sure that the entire structure is level: measure down from the top of the Pyramid’s blocks to the water when there is no wind. Guess what? The water is “level” all the way around the structure and that measurement will be the same.
It must have been a nightmare for those who pushed and pulled those huge rocks up from the river on those hot dry days. Stone blocks on rollers with ropes and slaves, handling them in the heat of the day and aligning those stones. Moreover, that was just the first layer of rock. When the blocks were being moved, a drumbeat was used so each man’s steps would be synchronized with the rest. The men would manhandle the blocks with two basic systems. First the rope and cross member timbers system. This system would allow several men to push on timbers that were attached to a rope along its length enabling more men on a shorter rope to maneuver the block. The second system was similar though it used a wooden central shaft rather than a rope. Not! With ropes over the slaves shoulder as the process is often shown. As a matter of fact this cross bar system allowed the men to push rather than pull the block and push with the cross members. This allowed movement of the block at any point on the block, which gave added maneuverability when placing the stone. When the blocks were ready to be locked into place, the men would push on the diagonal so that two sides of the block would make contact with the complementary matrix of the blocks that had already been placed. This allowed the block to interlock at the same time as if the three blocks were one because they were one once. Each block was placed back in the order that it was quarried. However, the bigger problem has been how those stones get stacked more than 457.5 feet above the Nile River Valley floor.
1Lamsa, G. M., Op. Oite,p 976-977
2Habachi L., The Obelisks of Egypt, American U.P. Cairo 1988
3Rice H. S,”Seasons” Op. Cite, Colliers V. 20, P. 557-559
5Hancock. G, Mirrors of Heaven: Crown Publishing, New York.p.108
6Mayall N. R, “Sundial”, Op. Cite, Colliers V.21, P634
8Smith, “Informal Geometry”, Addison-Wesley, Publishing Co, New York, 1992, p.346-347
9Ibid, p. 365
10Lamsa, G. M., Op. Oite P. 976-977
11Davison, D Op. Cite. 37 Foundation plate
12Lamsa, G. M., Op. Oite P. 967-698
13Ibid, P. Forward P. xiv
16 Scott Dr. G, Op. Cite , Davison citing, D The Great Pyramid, (Its Divine Message), William and Norgate, LTD, England 1937, Vol. 1 and Petrie, Our Inheritance, 3rd, Historical Studies II Ancient Egypt, England 1917
17 Davison, D Op. Cite. p.91
18Hancock. G, Mirrors of Heaven, Op.Cite, P. 45-48
This entry was posted on November 17, 2015 by Howard West. It was filed under ancient technology, ancient technology,, Building Pyramids, Egypt, History, surveying and was tagged with ancient technology, Chief Corner Stone, dioptra, Gnomon, Horpakrate, obelisk, Sundial, surveying.