Just as with Theseus in the Labyrinth we have been given a ball of thread to follow to unravel the mystery of how a Bronze Age society was able to erect two Great Pyramids more than four hundred and forty-seven feet high. Herodotus said:
“The Pyramid was twenty years in the building and the Machines to lift the stone were made of wood.1”
(Not of reeds)
Twenty years to stack 2.3 million blocks, which had an average weight five thousand pounds average thickness four feet, stacked to a height of more than four hundred and fifty feet, The Machines to stack the stones were “Made of Wood?” Machines are translated from the Greek word Machana, Which can mean:
Wooden, Stone Barges
However, if you go to any common Greek Lexicon, it will say that “machana” is defined as a machine. But surprisingly, if you look at similarly spelled words you will find they are defined as ship captains and seamen. Furthermore, if boats are not machines; what are they? crocodiles? Strangely, yes, those machanas were sometimes shown as crocodiles in Egyptian sculptures. Both Osiris and his son’s feet were on crocodile. Horus2: in the specific form of Heru-sa-Aset, or Heru-pa-Khered is depiction where young Horus is standing on the back of a crocodile, (also known as stone barges). Heru-pa-Khered is defined from ancient Coptic Greek as Heru”: the Coptic form of the Greek word: “HER” and is defined as “the tool of strengths.” This root word is used in the Greek man/god named Hercules; Pa, the narrows (of the Nile); Khered meant, earth or stone moving.
The vast majority of the stone blocks were transported by boat (Machana) envisaged as crocodiles, and not on rollers over land, though they were on rollers as they traveled in the boat. These barges when transporting numerous stone blocks would look like crocodiles on the river when looked on from the lip of the valley.
There is a bas-relief sculptor at Deir el Bahri that shows the Queen/Pharaoh Hatsheput to Punt3. At that temple there are also stone carvings that shows several vessels: seventy feet long by seventeen feet wide and five feet deep with fifteen oars per side (with a total of thirty to sixty oarsmen for propulsion and two more for steering.4) During that same time period large barges were also built for transporting stone blocks down the Nile River.5 Stone carvings show one such vessel with two Obelisks end to end, but the vessel must have been two hundred feet long. Herodotus wrote of the Great shipping fleet on the Nile. At Al-Lisht site, Sesostris I, had large wooden boats in or near his burial enclosure.6
The Great Pyramid has four boat pits around its base: because they were so important to that structure. We also know that the granite blocks were floated down from the Aswan area along the Nile. The one found next to the Great Pyramid, and is now in the Boat Museum nearby, is 43 meters long.7 The machana was found dismantled in a pit sealed with huge limestone blocks, the pit is too small for the assembled boat, and therefore, the boat seems to have been purposely dismantled. This indicates that the pyramids were once surrounded by water, and that water was use by those stone barges in the construction of the Great Pyramids
Isis the Queen of Navigation8 and (machana) barges are the keys to stacking the stones of the great Pyramids four hundred and fifty feet off the valley floor. However, this construction technique was never lost. Even today in the 21st century of the Christian era. Heavy construction materials are delivered to the tops of dams by large river barges, just as it was with the construction of the Isis Dam, a Dam that changed Egypt from a desert to a World Power. And as the Isis dam rose; the river also roses behind that dam, and so did the barges that delivered the construction materials.
However, the Isis dam gave added benefits to the Pyramid builders because as the dam grew higher the stone masons working on the Pyramid had stone delivered to their construction site because of the Queen of Navigation the Isis Dam allowed for navigation on the River Nile year round. So as the Isis dam grew higher the Great Pyramids grew at same rate as the dam grew, stone blocks supplied by those same wooden machines called river barges or machana, as the water covered the stone blocks of the Pyramid. The water would also cocoon the outside of the Osiris’ Pyramid with green algae and black slime, To be weathered away after the Great Pyramid rose out of the water of the receding lake in 2141 years before the Christian Era began. Even so, because this is an uncommon interpretation of the Osiris story, there must be over whelming evidence to validate this interpretation. Consequently, we are about to go where non-tenured professors fear to tread, to uncover that indisputable evidence. 9
The common traditions, that have been passed down for centuries tell 21st century man that the Egyptian stone masons built the Great Pyramids. Nevertheless, there is evidence that those same stone masons built a large stone masonry dam across the river Nile almost thirteen thousand years ago, evidence that has been put up on a shelf, because the evidence does not fit the Common Traditions surrounding the Great Pyramid theories. Consequently, the time has come to take that evidence off the shelf and dust it off, and answer the riddle to how the Pyramids were really constructed. Dams were more common that what most Archeologists10 are lead to believe and this because of traditions that have been handed down and have precluded out of The Box thought, because the teachers hand down their understanding to their students and as teachers are expected to be believed. In fact the Weekly Ahram story of the worlds the second oldest dam dating back about 4,000 years ago has been hidden away from most archeologists. Even so, the dam concept was very common, though it has been misunderstood for centuries. Many times misunderstanding the symbols used to portray them confuses many experts.
When the Caliph Al Mamaun in the year 840 of the Christian era broke into the Pyramid;11 he did not find, jewels, gold or even mummies, to be crushed and be sold for medicine. What he did find was bat droppings, lots of remnants of tiny water creatures, and ton and tons of dirt. The Caliph and his minions took months digging the dirt from the Great Pyramid. Dirt, that was in almost every tunnel and passageway. The dirt had seeped in through centuries of sitting in that lake (the Sea of Nun). Take a close look at the Sphinx and notice how bad it has been water eroded. The evidence is in plain sight. You will also notice that the river narrows near Cairo, has eroded islands like Roda, and evidence of a burst river dam. Which happened in the year 2141 before the Christian era began.
Sir Flides Petrie (1853-1943 of the Christian era.) Professor of Egyptology 1892-1933 and later to become professor emeritus from 1933-1942 of the world famous London University and the “Father of Modern Archeological Methods” made extensive measurements of the Great Pyramid, especially in the Queens Chamber where he had to spend much time cleaning away salt deposits that were caked on the wall of that chamber so he could make accurate measurements. The salt that was left behind after the brackish water from the lake left inside had evaporated. However, the Queen’s chamber was hundreds of feet above the valley floor, evidence that the Pyramid had once been under water.12
Modern carbon dating of “Silt sediments rising to fourteen feet around the base of the pyramid contain many seashells and fossils that have been radiocarbon-dated to be nearly twelve thousand years old. These sediments could have been deposited in such great quantities only by major sea flooding. This evidence alone suggests that the three main Giza pyramids are at least twelve thousand years old.13”
The engineers who believe “The Four Ramp Theory” tell the Common Man the materials needed to build a four ramp system would have taken thirty two-million cubic yards of materials to construct. It only took a little over twenty nine-million cubic yards of materials to build the Trinity dam across the Trinity River in California the Trinity River dam is five hundred thirty seven feet high. That is eighty-seven feet taller that the Great Pyramid. The Trinity dam is not all concrete but that dam is Earth filled.
In a Masoretic text of Job there is a passage that is linked to the star Polaris that indicates that this book is more than 13,000 years old:14 to the time of the building of the Pyramids there are other verses that give additional verification of how the Great pyramids were constructed.15
Therefore, he used the stones from the top of his quarry for the bottom of his new mountain his Pyramid.
11. He dams the river that it may not overflow:
This passage speaks of the benefits of the dam. The dam was the device controlled that annual flooding and drought cycle of the Nile. Flooding and drought made the Nile delta farm land unusable for most of the prime growing seasons; until the Isis Dam was constructed.
And the thing that is hid21
Under the irrigation water of the rising lake
He might bring forth “Light”
Understanding of the hidden mysteries of the Pyramid
11 But where is wisdom to be found?
12 No man knows the treasures thereof: And where is the place of understanding.
This Image is of the Isis Dam site showing the Cairo narrows, the island Roda, and the High hills coming down to the River Nile where the Isis dam was up until 2141 years before the Christian era began.
The next Image is a satellite picture of that area. The dark purple is a geological outcropping high above the valley floor that restricts the flow of the river Nile at that location near Cairo. Notices the island Roda in the river at that location? 22
This is one of three images that are are Serekhs of the next three Pharaohs from the Book Introductory Guide to the Egyptian Collections Published by the British Museum page 23. Narmer was the first Pharaoh of the First Egyptian Dynasty. This pharaoh’s Serekh illustrates the narrows (Matsuwd24) near modern Cairo with the island Roda and the Nile passing on each side of the island in the middle of the between the two sets of parallel lines.The next three show the building of the Isis Dam.
1 Edwards I. E. S, “The Pyramid” ” Colliers,, Vol. 19, P.543
2Hawthorn, J. The Masterpieces and History of Literature V1, P22 E.R. Du Mont, New York 1903
4Hodges, P., and Keable J. How the Pyramid Was Built, :Element Books, Shaftesbury, 1989 V8, 8 p.652-676
8Rice, S., Pandora, Alford A. Knopf, New York, 1998, p.62
11Davison, D Op. Cite.
12Petrie, Our Inheritance, 3rd, Historical Studies II Ancient Egypt, England 1917
13Gray Martin, sacred sites. Com
16Strongs James, Op. Cite,, Hebrew, no 79711
17Ibid, no. 3028
21Ibid, no.8587, 8585
23Introductory Guide to the Egyptian Collections, Published by the British Museum 1976
24Strongs James, Op. Cite,,H,4689
There have been many books and television shows about how the Great Pyramids were built. Let us start with those theories on how to build the pyramid the hard way: Most of those theories used ramps of some kind.1 Though on the late night talk shows some guests say the lifting of the stone was done by space aliens, other theories say the lifting was done by Giant Cone headed men that hummed them into place, still others say the lifting was done by good or bad Angels. My favorite failed theory was airlifting the stones. We will talk about that theory but even that system was far too slow.
The Long Ramp Theory
The mainstream theories of the Egyptologist use ramps. The most common is the long ramp. The theory goes: that the slaves could not push a huge block of stone up a gradient of more than (ten to one) ten feet of horizontal movement2 to one-foot vertical movement. To build the Pyramid to the projected height of 480 feet tall with ramps, you would need a ramp four thousand, eight hundred feet long of material that is very hard and smooth. (Have you ever tried to push a car in sand?). The volume of materials that would be needed would be more than EIGHT MILLION CUBIC YARDS3. Nevertheless, some construction engineers say to lift all those stones; it would take FOUR of those ramps4 which would be more than THIRTY TWO-MILLION cubic yards of materials5. The Great Pyramid itself only has a little more than two-point eight million cubic yards of materials. But where did all the materials6 go that were used to build those ramps after the construction was finished?
Spiral Ramp Theory
Former professor, John Blaines of Oxford University developed a spiral ramp theory by which the Egyptians went round and round the pyramid until the stone blocks on log rollers reached the top.7 The problem is that those log rollers do not make tight turns. The blocks would fall off before they could make the turn. Unless the ramps were far beyond the foot print of the structure itself which would take almost as much materials as a straight Long Ramp.
Many Fringe Egyptologist say Edward Leedskalnin knew the secret method used to lift the stones used in the pyramid construction. Sadly, No, Ed used a large compressor and tube type truck tires as lifting bags to air lift the stones for his Corral Castle in Miami, Florida. No magic, sorry, a photo shows an air compressor in the background taken during the construction phase –simple but effective– Nonetheless, Egyptians had a much faster and easier way of moving stones.
Aesop’s Thirsty Dog
In this story, the Dog (the common or unclean) was thirsty. However, the water that he was given by the stork or Egyptian Ibis (Thoth) was in the bottom of a narrow container. Making an easy drink for the Dog impossible, Even so, the Dog solved his problem by placing stones into the container, in so doing raised the water level allowing him to drink. That problem of thirst and the solution of placing stones into a water source is the “Key Stone” to understanding the Egyptian process of stacking the stones 450 feet above the valley floor. The Geological records of the river Nile basin and the world wide sea level records (see charts8), tell us that in the later portion of the Pleistocene Epoch Earth was in a time of Great Drought. Even so, at that time of drought, (12,500 to 13,500 years ago) the Nile river level suddenly rose by hundreds of feet, an event that turned the Nile River Valley and delta into a fruitful place for man in a time the rest of the world was in a Great Drought. Then almost as suddenly eight thousand years later about 2141 years before the Christian era began the river levels dropped about the same amount.
The Geological Record of Egypt
Great Pyramids were constructed about 13,000 years ago
The Gatekeepers of knowledge will not consider the evidence that the three Great Pyramids were constructed about 13,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene Epoch. To have that date verified would foul up their carefully crafted “Traditions” of the development of Civilization. Verifying that there was a civilization that far advanced would cause “The Traditions” of countless Scholars to go up in “Smoke.”
Even so, there is evidence of just that construction date. The Book of Job places the Great Pyramid construction in a time when Polaris was a seasonal star of early summer, not a Pole star as it is today. Polaris only becomes a seasonal star when the Progressions of the Equinoxes moves that star below the Northern Horizon Circle. That only happens to Polaris once every 26,000 years and then only for a few years, and the last time Polaris was under the Northern Horizon Circle was 12,000 to 13,000 years ago, A time that matches the astronomer, Robert Bauva’s10 alignment of three Great Pyramids with the three stars of Orion’s Belt. Bauva determined that the three Great pyramids have the same relationship in size ratio and placement as the three stars in the Belt of Orion as they were seen from earth 12,450 years ago.11 Even the colors of those stars match the three Great Pyramids, white, red and white.
This one shall comfort us concerning our work and the toil of our hands
These pieces of “seemingly implausible” evidence have been rejected by the Gate Keeper of History; nevertheless, the “Spinner of Time” has locked those pieces of silk threads into place with geological records of The Nile River Valley. Geological records show the Nile River level rising hundreds of feet during a time of World Wide Drought12, a river level rise that has NO NATURAL reason to rise during a time of regional drought.
About that time (13,000 years ago) a man named Lemech who had a son and when he was born Lemech said of his son:
“This one shall comfort us concerning our work and the toil of our hands, because of the ground which the lord has cursed.”13
The son of Lemech went by many Names: Gilgamesh called him Utnapishtim,14 The Aztecs called him Coxcoxtli15, the Central Americans called him Tezcatil16, To the Brahmans he had the name Manu17. This man also authored most of the book now known as the Book of Enoch, because portions of his book were incorporated into the Book of Enoch over the centuries.
All the same, we must first deal with another member of “the family”; Great-Great-Great Grandpa Khunm (Khain) Khufu. The name Khufu meant in the ancient Semitic tongue, “to cover up.18” And in Greek, Cheops means, a well-watered garden19. Khufu built the Great Pyramid and controlled the annual flooding of the Nile River. Now how did he do his amazing feats of engineering, like controlling the flooding of the Nile? The same way the Egyptians control the annually flooding now: with an irrigation dam of course. As Sherlock Homes would say, “The Game is a foot.” The development of irrigation systems was said to be the one of the biggest factors in the civilization of man. Egypt is the birthplace of that science.20 Along the Nile, irrigation was used and Egypt became known as “Wheat Cakes.” The problem with the Nile is that the river is in flood or drought. That is one of the reasons that the Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser were built, to regulate the flow of the Nile
Plateau or Valley?
The Experts say that, “The Great Pyramid is on a big flat plateau”, giving you pictures of a flat land that looks as if that plateau goes on for hundreds of miles, and that plateau does go on for hundreds of miles. Even so, the River Nile cuts a very deep valley through that plateau. Back in the country where I come from we call that kind of thinking being a “Flat Lander;” or what you might call being a two-dimensional thinker.
The Nile river valley is hundreds of feet deep and in some places eight to twelve miles wide then narrowing to spots like where the Aswan dam is now, and behind that dam is Lake Nasser which is the Second Sea of Nun. This lake is very important in the history of the future.
These narrows in the Nile valley are called cataracts. There is a narrowing just up the river from Cairo and then the Nile River begins its delta. That narrows is a lot wider now than it was ten thousand years ago; although just a few years ago a hydroelectric dam project was canceled at that point. The reason was that dam’s lake would have covered the Great Pyramid.
2Hancock ,Finger Prints of the Gods: Crown Publishing , New York P285
3Hodges. and Keable J. How the Pyramid Was Built, :Element Books, Shaftesbury, 1989,p. 123
4Blaines J. and Malek J., Atlas of Ancient Egypt, Time Life Books, Virginia , 1990p160, cited, Pyramids of Egypt ,p229-230
8 Hoffman, Michael A. Op. Cite,
10Bauval, Robert, and Gilbert Adrian, The Orion Mystery, Heinemann, London, 199
11 Starry Nights, Computer star charting program.
12 Op. Cite, Colliers V. 8 P671
13Lamsa, G. M., Op. Oite, p. 12
14 Hancock. G, Mirrors of Heaven, Op.Cite P188
16 Hamlyn P. , New Lararousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, London, 1989. ,p362
17Hancock. G, Mirrors of Heaven, Op.Cite P188
18Strongs James, Op. Cite, Hebrew , no.2644
19 Strongs, Op. Cite, Greek, no.2779
20Colliers, Egypt Op cite,
Before Egypt was known by the Greek name Egypt, Aigu-ptis1 which is derived from aigialos2 a sea (as in Aegean), and ptoeo3 to cause to flee away, Egypt’s ancient Semitic name was Metz-ra-yim4 the meaning of which is Metz5 the wall or fence, or Mitzad6 to capture, Ra7 the power, and Yim8 the river or sea. This riddle is given life through the Parable of Osiris. The Pharaoh Osiris and his co-regent Isis were the most beloved couple in Egyptian mythology; though Isis was known to be angry at Lower Egypt. Even so, the couple had a good working relationship, though Isis would have loved to have Osiris home more. Osiris was always on the go, as an ambassador telling the world of the greatness of Egypt. Consequently, the day to day affairs of Egypt fell to Isis leaving little time to start a family, (which was something that Isis dearly wanted.) All was not sweetness and light: Osiris’ brother Set was the jealous kind, a man that coveted all that Osiris had, (especially the Throne of Egypt.) Set through deception was able to capture, and then kill his brother, Osiris. Then for spite and to make sure the job was complete: Set cut our hero into pieces and carefully hid Osiris’ dismembered pieces in the Nile. Isis was distraught with grief over the loss of her husband and the emptiness of her womb. Consequently, Isis took up the gruesome task of finding all the missing pieces of her husband that were hidden in the Nile.
Eventually, Isis had located most of Osiris’ dismembered body. Isis then wrapped Osiris in green and black in so doing cocooning Osiris. Because, of Isis’ great devotion and love for her husband, Osiris was resurrected for one night, (A gift to allow the couple to couple?) However, Isis had not found all of her husband’s missing pieces; and furthermore, that one piece was a very Important Piece if you wanted a son as badly as Isis. Somehow Osiris was magically up to the task and Isis was given a son which she called Horus. A son that would take the part of his father’s Osiris Missing Piece? Okay, that sounds a little “KINKY.” However, in the Un-Common interpretation that concept is perfectly logical.
The Students of Ancient Egypt’s Traditions have taken this common fairytale interpretation of Osiris, Isis, and Horus and they have turned that interpretation into the accepted tradition of this story, with generation after generation repeating the same basic story. “The Riddle Lords,” planned for the common interpretation to be accepted by their Enemies and the Common folk, All the same, those story tellers expected that their Dark Sayings would be eventually unwrapped, like the mummy wrappings around Osiris. Consequently, we still have the basic skeleton of this riddle intact so that frame work can be fleshed out through other sources. Let’s start with the common tradition surrounding: Isis. First Isis wears a strange crown, and the common tradition calls this a throne: even so, that stair stepped triangle is depicted in many papyri as a dam.
Furthermore, the hieroglyphic symbol for Isis implies just that concept. The first Glyph is an oval symbolizing water or a body of water, above that is a solid half circle symbolizing rising. Then to the left a stair step triangle the dam symbol, the meaning? Isis, the dam that causes water to rise. Isis’ son Glyph only has a small hawk next to her Glyph.
Osiris’ Glyph symbol is the “All Seeing Eye”, the udjat, as seen on the back of the U.S. one dollar bill and even Osiris’ phonic pronunciation is connected to that Eye: Osiris., Iris was the female messenger goddess of the Greeks. Furthermore, that eye is connected with the heliographic system used by the Egyptians. That heliographic device was also embodied in Osiris’ son Horus, consequently, the Horus device (heliograph) that was placed on the platform of the “Height that was not sharpened.”
Horus replaced the thirty feet of stone work which would have been needed to complete the “Apex” of the great Pyramid. Just as the Osiris story said, but not as “kinky” as the common interpretation implies. The Riddle Lords threads knew that their enemies loved kinky stories, and that “kinkiness” would help to keep the story told and retold throughout the generations, a stratagem that the Riddle Lords knew that their Enemies and the Common Folk would be unaware of the story’s hidden meaning.
1Strongs, Op. Cite, G 125
4Strongs James, Op. Cite, H,4714
O Height which
Is not sharpened
Isaiah 19 account of 2141 years
Before the Christian era
The Year of Tears
5. And the waters shall fail from the sea (of Egypt) and the river (Nile) shall be wasted (lost to the Mediterranean) and dried up.
6. And they shall turn the rivers far away (change the courses of the delta river channels to new locations)
and the brooks (irrigation canals) of defense shall be emptied and dried up: the reeds and flags, iris flower shall wither.
7. The paper reeds by the brooks (irrigation canals) and
everything sown by the brooks (irrigation canals) shall wither and be driven away and be no more.
8. The fisher also shall mourn, and they that cast angle into the brook (irrigation canals) shall lament
and they that spread nets upon the waters (the sea of Egypt) shall languish.
9. Moreover they that work in fine flax and they that weave networks shall be confounded.
This is a quote from an ancient Coptic text that was transcribed from a Hebrew text 1which was written eight century before the Christian era2 began, by a man named Isaiah. A later Egyptian writer/ historian mirrors this 19th chapter of Isaiah by the name of Manetho of the third century before the Christian era in his description is of the First Intermediate Period of Egyptian History3. The description in this chapter of Isaiah is not of a future event as in his eleventh and fifty first chapters but an event of the past 1,300 years before Isaiah’s birth, a commentary on the flood and aftermath caused by the destruction of the Isis dam across the Nile causing the Sesonchosis (the Season of Chaos) of Egypt’s history. Now here is the point in verses number nineteen and twenty.
19 On that day there shall be an ALTAR to the LORD, In the midst of the Land of Egypt and a PILLAR at its Border to the LORD.
20 and it shall be a sign and for a wittiness to the Lord of Host in the land of Egypt
However, we will need to decode those statements a little first, the location in “The midst land of Egypt “? Okay that means the middle of Ancient Egypt. Next, “at its border there of”, that statement does not mean at the outside edge of Egypt, but to the location where the two Ancient Egypt’s Upper and Lower meets, and where is that? Just up the river from Cairo. What is “a PILLAR “? That is a tall rock or a stack of rocks. What is “an ALTAR?” It is a place to meet with GOD. Now here is the answer to this “Dark Saying” that locks these passages to the Great Pyramid in the verses 19-20. Remember the Hebrew Scholars use line ciphers to keep the transcriptions accurate? Well the total of verses 19-20 is 5,400, which is the total Pyramid Inches from the base to the platform of the Great Pyramid. Moreover, when did this Altar or Pillar come into view?
And the waters shall fail from the sea (of Egypt) and the river (Nile) shall be wasted and dried up.
The sea which the ancient Egyptians called the sea of Nun was also called the sea of Egypt by Isaiah4 the triumphantful resurrection of the Great Pyramid as that structure rose out of the Sea of Egypt is expressed as symbols; first the Primeval Mound5; the first to burst forth from the Waters of Nun. Next the Sacred Benben stone6; and the Bennu, the renascence bird, Phoenix 7, the pyramid was also called Het Benben (house of the renascence) “The temple of Benben 8” Which is often called “the Mansion of the Phoenix9” (Resurrection, the rising from the waters of Baptisms, just like Osiris. The Egyptians also called the Great Pyramid at Heliopolis; Innu10, and the pillar of Enoch and regarded the pyramid to be the first portion of land to have forced itself free of the Sea of Nun or Egypt
Atum another name for the Pyramid spoke of itself:
“When I was alone in the waters, in a state of inertness, Before I was found anywhere to stand or sit, Before Heliopolis had been founded that I might be there in”
Again speaking of Atum of the Isis dam bursting and the sea of Nun receding the Utterance 600 of the Pyramid text.
” When you came into being you rose as a High Hill you shone As the Benben Stone in the Temple of the Phoenix
From Antiquities II, Xv, 2
The students of the Common History of Egypt place Tahutmes III in the 18th dynasty, yet, his Serek more closely matches the style of those of the end of the Old Kingdom hundreds of years prior to the date given to the 18th dynasty.11
“From his 21st year, when his sole reign began, to his 42nd Year inclusive, he was actively engaged on wars in Canaan and Nubia.
Then in his 50th year we find him active at the first Cataract,
Clearing an obstruction there and issuing a decree to keep it clear.
The administrative activity here indicates the conditions that accompany famine.
The dates of the 50th to his 57th year..12
The Aswan cataract was not considered the First Cataract in the year 2141 before the Christian era. If the first Cataract had been on the Aswan Cataract, the constriction that would have been needed on the Nile, for that obstruction to have create a famine in the lower valley for seven years. That constriction point on the Nile would have been almost as large as The Isis Dam. The location of the Isis Dam was located at that point where the valley narrows just up river from the present-day city Cairo near the island of Roda. Remember that the cataract has been washed out quite a bit. This area is much wider than the narrows was before the wash out of the Isis Dam. So much so, in the centuries that passed the Isis narrows lost its ranking as the first Cataract to the Aswan narrowing of the Nile. The Isis narrows was once known as Pa-Hanock (the mouth of the narrows) or in English “the Narrows of Enoch.” Again this point on the Nile divided the two Egypt’s Upper and Lower.
To find physical evidence of the Isis dam we of necessity we must look at the destructive power unleashed by the breaching of a large dam, and understand why there is no longer any evidence of a dam at the Isis site after four thousand years.
A few years ago there was a problem in Washington State with one of their mountains. You may have heard of Mount Saint Helen. Part of that mountain slid down and plugged a large creek called The Toutle River. The plug of mud and earth became a dam one hundred feet high which held back a rather large lake of twenty three-square miles, when this dam was breached, the receding waters that had been behind that dam cut a canyon one thousand feet wide and one hundred and forty feet deep. The water had rocks, sand, logs, and flotsam and jetsam which widened that narrow little creek: which made a sizable canyon one thousand feet wide where that little creek is now. Compare that to the Aswan dam,13 a dam which is three hundred sixty four feet high, eleven thousand eight hundred and eight feet wide and holds back 125,600,000 cubic acre-feet of water.14 Equal to about eleven hundred miles of water three hundred feet high traveling at hundreds of miles per hour tearing through the Aswan narrows on its way to the Island of Roda and the City of Cairo on its way to the Mediterranean. When that dam bursts: not if, what size of a hole will be left where that dam is now? Because Isaiah states15 that dam will soon BURST, It is enough to say that the area on the Nile where the first dam was is wider then narrows was when the dam was in place. However there is evidence of the lake or sea of Nun which the Isis Dam created and a geological time frame for that dam’s existence.
Of the Isis Dam
Stellar Time Stamp
During the Late Pleistocene Epoch the “Stellar Time Stamp” (c. 12,500 years ago) given in the text of Job16, Sea level was down. However, the Nile river was higher, much higher than today. That is strange; the valley was lush with vegetation. Strange because during During the Epipalaeolithic period the Sea and Nile levels river were all most equal during a time of relative plentiful rain and vegetation, Sea level and Nile consistent during a time of plentiful rain. c. 2100 years before the Christian era17 to Current the sea and Nile river levels were constant during periods drought or rain. However, at the time of the building of the Great Pyramid (c. 12,500 years ago) Sea level was down.18 Even so, the water of the Nile rose far above today’s river level during that time of drought? When vegetation of the surrounding area was low and matching the pre-MWP1B19 sea levels which were in a sea level stagnation period; that were indicated by the core samples of the Pearl River Delta the Barbados, Tahiti, and New Guinea data. The reason for this anomaly was the Isis dam, because, that dam allowed the waters of the Nile to rise far above current and prior levels during a time of drought. From the Isaiah 19:18 account of events of the destruction of the Isis Dam, Isaiah said, the Israelites were in Egypt near that time and built a city called Harris (The city of Destruction)20 Also known as Heliopolis.
The book of Isaiah, the text implies that the destruction happened before the Exodus of the Jews: in line with the end of the Old Kingdom and the beginning of the First Intermediary period, but sometime after the patriarch Joseph’s arrival. The Ipuwer Papyrus that was translated by Sir Alan Gardiner in 191621, and was also known as “The Admonition of an Egyptian Sage,” And that document has a 500-year adjustment in the accepted time line of Egypt’s history. A document that speaks of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt22 at the close of the Middle Kingdom that began the second Intermediate Period,” this is a major adjustment to the common understanding of Manetho’s time line, and the First Intermediate Period. This moved Tahutmes III King of Egypt (from Antiquities II XV. 2) and his misplaced Serekh into First Intermediate Period. Where we find Tahutmes III King of Egypt23 is active at clearing an obstruction on the Nile. With that and the subtraction of around 400 years and the lifetime of one man named Joseph. This text would put the destruction of the Isis Dam in line with the Book of Isaiah24 time line of his 19th chapter and indicated the conditions accompany famine. And Tahutmes III proclaimed that The EYE of Thoth (the planet mercury) was in the sky this is an anchor point in the history of Egypt to the Stars and the first year of tears of 2141 before the Christian era. 25
The history of this period was well documented by Isaiah in his 19th chapter. Where Isaiah describes this Eye of Thoth as “The Lord ridding on enveloping darkness” that darkness was caused by the close approach of a planetary traveler which was on its return loop of its elliptical orbit from the sun. This closeness to Earth caused Thoth’s shadow to eclipses Earth and to fall on Egypt as this Traveler approached. Thoth’s additional tide forces were the last straw and caused the 8,000 year old Isis dam to be breached, and then hundreds of years later those same tide forces cause a temporary low tide in the Red Sea on Thoth’s return in about the year 1483 before the Christian era.
The Greek term for that type of outlaw interplanetary body is Disaster (des- away + aster- a star26). That does not mean just a one-time problem but a Cause that can create many problems over and over again: by what the Greeks thought was a runaway star. Apollo27 was one such Greek “Runaway’ Star” In the distant past the Egyptians called this Traveler, Thoth28, and today is known as Mercury. The Queens of Egypt are often shown with a headdress with horns and a large golden mirror the model for the scientific symbol of the planet Mercury.
When that mirror caught the sun, the brightness of the mirror s reflection would make it hard for you to look at her; the mirror would make it like looking into the Sun. This silver disk and horns are also the symbol for the Apis Bull and of Zeus in the Europa story.
In the Tahutmes III Dynasty the first month of the year was called Thoth. Our old friend Tahutmes III made his inscription about The Eye of Thoth just after the dam had been breached and the famine that had come to Egypt. Then five centuries later when the children of Israel were in bondage, a Death Angel (Thoth) passed over: if a man or boy was outside they died. Some call this Death Angel Nibiru (Nebo Ur) which means the Prophet-Planet? Many people today are looking for this Tenth planet called Nibiru to cause Earth problems: I wonder why? That disaster is now called Mercury and it is not the tenth planet it is now parked in a permanent orbit number ONE.
This traveler was also known as Nabu, Mercury, and Thoth, and now this traveler is the closest planet to the sun just a little larger than Pluto. As of 8/24/2006 the revisionists took Pluto out of planetary status. Mercury is just a little larger and at one time some people thought that Pluto was larger than Mercury. Will Mercury be next? Thoth/Mercury has a slight atmosphere and is very hot. Mercury also has a pronounced offset on its orbit, and a very slow daily rotation, which is proof of a recent capture of the Sun. The first person to know that Mercury was in a stationary orbit around the sun was Heraclide of Pontus in the 4th Century before the Christian era began.29 However there is mounting evidence that Mercury once was in an elliptical orbit past Earth. Just because Mercury is in its present orbit now, many factors could have made this orbit quite different in the past.
The Eye of Thoth had many names, and the Babylonians called this planet Nabu or Nibiru (Nebo Ur) means the Prophet-Planet and the patron god of the scribes. In the old Babylonian Empire times Mercury was known as Nabium. Nabu rose to preeminence in the Neo-Babylonian (Chaldean) empire30, just after several disasters took place. The destruction of the Isis dam in c.2141 years before the Christian era is just one example. According to Isaiah 19:20B31 “A Great One… shall deliver them” with the reappearance of Thoth hundreds of years later in 1483 before the Christian era causing ten major plagues and the Death Angel (Thoth) caused a Tsunamis in the Red Sea basin. And at the same time earth quakes destroyed the palaces of the Minoans: Knossos, Phaistos, Mallia and Zakros which allowed the Greeks to control the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Disasters caused by the close proximity of Thoth to Earth and then about fifty years later in c.1433 BCE Joshua had extra Thoth light to finish a battle.32. About five hundred years later in c.933 years before the Christian era the Greek army as they were stationed outside the walls of Troy had thousands of troops die, and at the same time King David of Israel had thousands of his people die when the sword in the sky passed overhead. Five hundred years later in c.433 BCE the Assyrians, laid siege to Jerusalem; and again the Assyrians had thousands of troops die.33 Soon after these disasters a new king of Babylon came on the scene: his name was Nebuchadnezzar. These disasters seemed to happen about every 50 or so years, in the Hebrew year of Jubilee. Nevertheless, the worst disaster happened every five or six hundred years when whole nations like Israel were moved. (“I think that I would be prepared to take that year off too.”)
Translated Into English
“Planet Mercury watch over my boarders 35”
What good is a planet like Mercury millions of miles away? Mercury is hard to see now because the planet is so close to the Sun. Why name yourself after Mercury unless that planet could help you. Maybe the reason is that Mercury could help because that planet had a different orbit than Mercury does now: An elliptical orbit. The Romans and the Greeks called this Disaster or runaway planet, Mercury and Hermes the morning star and Apollo (The Destroyer) the evening star, The Herald of death, and the Traveler. This evidence has been dismissed by our Gate keepers of the Scholarly World, just as the Gatekeepers of Troy discounted Cassandra’s evidence. The reason is because this evidence does not fit the accepted theories of The Scholarly World, that they expect the Common Folk to believe. This Traveler may (?) have one trip left to make. There have been some predictions that Nibiru (Mercury) will return. As weird as that sound: The Sun has been known to throw off Coronal Mass Ejections as has high as X Class 40 out into space, a force that could indeed change Mercury’s current orbit upon impact with Nibiru (Mercury).36 Who knows? However, the Earth changes of the years 1483, 2141 and 1483 before the Christian era were just dust devils compared to the Earth Changes of c. 10,500 years before the Christian era.
1Qumran cave one, Isaiah second copy
2Seele , Colliers ,Op. Cite, P.659
4Lamsa, G. M., Op. Oite, P.714-715, C. 19:1-22
5Hancock. G, Mirrors of Heaven, Op.Cite, P.106
11Introductory Guide to the Egyptian Collections Op. Cite, Serekh plates
12 Davison, D Op. Cite. p. 334
13Water Water part four of this book
14“Dams” , Op. Cite, Colliers Op. Cite 1997+
15Lamsa, G. M., Op. Oite, P. 709, C. 11:15, 11:11-16
17 Hamelin, Bard, E., Montaggioni, Arnold, M., Faure, Cabioch, G. ,Rougerie ,F. 1996 .Deglacial sea-levels records from Tahiti corals and the timing of global meltwater discharge NATURE 382,241-244
20Lamsa, G. M., Op. Oite, P714, C. 19:18
21“Sir Alan Gardiner”, “Ipuwer” ”, Colliers ,Op. Cite, 1997+
22 Lamsa, G. M., Op. OiteP.72-81, C. 7:15- 15:19
23 Davison, D Op. Cite. p. 334
24Lamsa, G. M., Op. Oite, P.714, C. 19:1-22
25 Hoffman, Michael A. Op. Cite
26 Thordike, Barnhart, Comprehensive Desk Dictionary Doubleday, New York,1967
27 Strongs James, Op. Cite,, H, 625,622,575,3639
28 Davison, D Op. Cite.
29 Armitage A. ”Astronomy, History of ”, Colliers ,Op. Cite, Vol.3 , P. 127
30 Simmons, OP. Cite Colliers, V. 15, p. 749
31Qumran Cave One, Isaiah Second copy,19:20B
32Lamsa, G. M., Op. Oite, P.254-255, C. 10:6-27
33Ibid, P.372-373, C. 24:10-17
34“Nebuchadnezzar” , Colliers ,Op. Cite, 1997+
36Westcott B. F, Hort J. A., The New Testament in the Original Greek, 1881,. Rev. 6:12-17
The second Pharaoh was Aha and his Serekh shows the narrows near Cairo Creating a Wall and Egypt became to be known as Matsuwr1 the Wall also known as Rahab2. The Horus hawk glyph is holding a mirrored Ankh and stone which implies that Aha was the stone quarrying for the Isis Dam.
The third Pharaoh was Djer seem to be doing the construction of the Wall or Matzuwr and installing the flood gates of the Isis Dam.
Djet the fourth Pharaoh completed the Isis Dam project and officially divided the upper and lower states of Egypt a project that brought great prosperity to the land of Egypt.
Lower Egypt is symbolized by the Red Crown. The glyph of which is the a red crown with an ostrich feather a glyph symbolizing the dam and the water cascading over causing the mist to rise and a half circle with crosshatching symbolizing the masonry dam filling the narrows near the island of Roda. Upper Egypt is symbolized by the kite glyph interpreted to symbolize the speed of shipping on the Sea of Nun the Upper Egypt glyph also has the dam symbol below it. The main image is the wall the Matzuwr symbolized in three ways first the wall with water heaped up over the top second the stylized Matzuwr and thirdly the wall Serekh with a snake zig zaging to symbolize the water cascading over the stair-step dam, with Horus above
The Egyptians also called the Great Pyramid at ancient Heliopolis “Innu, the Pillar “or The Pillar of Enoch. The ancient Egyptians regarded this pillar to be the first portion of land to have forced itself free of the “Sea of NUN” that was behind the Isis Dam
Atum another name for the Pyramid spoke of itself:
“When I was alone in the waters, in a state of inertness, before I was found anywhere to stand or sit,
before, Heliopolis had been founded that I might be therein3”
Again speaking of Atum in the Utterance 600 of the Pyramid Text;
” When you came into being you rose as a High Hill You shone as the Benben Stone in the Temple of the Phoenix4”
Funny thing is the Geological records of the Nile River valley show that sudden river rise at a time of World Wide Drought
It is best if we can visualize the river barge construction method of the Isis dam. So, we will use a boat like Queen/Pharaoh Hatsheput’s Obelisk (Machana5) barge because we know that they existed and carried those types of stone: but the machana was a much earlier model.
The uses of those craft eliminated the need for ramps or hundreds of workers to place each stone. Let us go back in time and take a little boat ride on the mighty Nile River that the Isis dam has turned into the placid Sea of Nun. We can catch a ride down the river at any one of the many stone quarries, and of course there would be oarsmen on the tow boats that pull the barge. The flow of the river would make the trip so much nicer than pushing those stone blocks on log rollers.
These machines were specialized pieces of construction equipment. Even so, these barges were most often camouflaged as crocodiles in Egyptian art and mythology. The machana was a wooden craft with lengths of up to two hundred feet. These barges were equipped with highly specialized “trim stabilizing devices” unique ballast stones that would compensate for shifting of those heavy stone blocks. These ballast stones were not inside the hull, but hung over the side, so that they would be partially submerged in the water. If the cargo shifted forwards causing the bow to drop further down into the water, the ballast stones toward the bow would also sink farther into the water in so doing lighting the barge by the amount of water that those stone now displace. (Archimedes Principle) However, that shifting of cargo would also cause the portion of the barge (the stern) to rise out of the water causing the stern ballast stones to rise out of the water increasing the ship’s weight by the amount of water that those stones had been displacing, in so doing cause the machana to stay in trim. However, there is a mystery of how these types of trim stabilizing stones have been found as far away as the towering mountains of Ararat of Turkey and Iran.
The Isis dam and the Sea of Nun had Terra-formed the desert of Egypt into lush green fields. The images above show how the Sea of Nun behind the Isis Dam caused Egypt to prosper. So, on this trip we will be going to the Dam.
As we float, we would see other barges empty of their Muck Rock from the quarry that has been thrown over the top of the dam for reinforcing: and for Rip-Rap to slow down any erosion caused by the6 millions of cubic feet of water running over the dam. This Masonry Dam was built with rock and was reinforced with limestone blocks to last eight thousand years until the Earthquake in Isaiah and his story of the Seancahos of 2141 years before the Christian era began.
Other boats would pass us filled with wheat, goats, and cattle. Who needs wheels when the Egyptians had boats and a lake to float those boats on? Around the lake the only things you can see are lush green fields irrigated with water from the lake, and below the Isis dam the delta was a Garden of Eden. Yes, Man had thrown off the curse of GOD. Maybe-maybe not, that is for later in The Earth changes of 10,500 years before the Christian era began section.
As we approach the dam which stands just one block above the water; we can see dozens of other barges unloading. You would clearly see a stylized representation of a machana and its cargo of stone for the dam and its two tow boats being lifted by the rising water behind the Isis dam as that dam grows higher. You would also see barges unloading a load of waste rock from the quarry to be used as reinforcement and rip-rap of the stone masonry dam.
Above the papyrus shows a finished dam with water going up and over the dam then down the stream to the delta. Above that is an overhead view of the dam and its flood gates system with water flowing around the ends.
Back at the Isis Dam there are ten barges unloading block onto the dam. Some machanas will be to the right of the center and the others to the left; placing their stones in a flat stair step or fan pattern. The barge we watch has its bow high because the blocks are more aft, so the bow can slip over the lower course of stone and drop stone block closer to the proper location. This time the stone block is one of the outer layers of rock, no need to manhandle this block to the back row. The bow is on to the lower course of blocks and the block on the barge is being pushed forward: Which will give the boat a steeper angle toward the dam and allow the block to slide off.
Then, before the block is set, a fine layer of baked limestone dust is blown on the blocks that our block will fit into. This cement dust is blown on with a forge bellows device so when the water comes up, the concrete dust will seal the hairline cracks with cement. This cement would stop all leaks of the upper structure. Subterranean leaks are the nemesis of modern dams, these were plugged by using Cowboy Mud , This cowboy mud is a clay, such as bentonite, and has been used for centuries to stop leaks in water reservoirs. Egypt is known for its fine clay that is brought down each year by the flooding of the Nile. The slow construction of the dam over the twenty years of construction allowed for this mud to fill and then be compacted in subterranean cracks under the dam site that would otherwise cause the failure of the structure.
After placement of the stone the barge would be slid over by men with ropes to place the next stone block. For the outer blocks a small boat with a large rope-covered bow and very large load of muck rock is pulled by ropes by men on the top of the dam and the boat crashes into the block that was just placed. At the same time a second block on log rollers also with a rope bumper is pushed and crashed into the block locking the stones into place from two sides: Which allowed the blocks to fits together as if they were one because the stone blocks were one once. When placed too far from the edge other blocks are locked together with two rope bumper blocks on log rollers, the second to replace the little boat. The placement of one block would take less than twenty minutes. And if there were twenty barges working – ten on each side- east and west they would be able to set sixty blocks per hour. At twelve hours per day the stone masons could have built the Pyramid in less than ten years.
The problem was those stone masons were building at the same time at least three pyramids and a dam. So twenty years would be about right for the Great Pyramids completion. However, to quarry that many stones blocks would have taken more time than to set the stone. Logic dictates multiple stone quarries so that each course of stone would have its own quarry, a quarry that would be reused for later courses of blocks.
The Pyramid was built using the same basic building techniques as the dam, though the inner rooms had many more and finer details. Nevertheless, let us just deal with the most difficult problems now. The block would be set the same way, as with the dam though each block would be more precisely placed. The artificial stars like the Horpakrate and the dioptra (transit) and the measuring line could be used to catch any error before any misalignment became a problem.
When the enormous stones were needed to be placed over a gaping opening, the lake level could be raised to allow the barges to float over the hole. The larger stone blocks were placed by floating them over the location and sliding the massive stone block off the barge; inflated cow skin float bags in the water of the hole under the block were used, which would slow the decent of the large block though the distance to lower the block to the lower course was only a few inches of fall. A skid block was also used to slow the decent by anchoring the huge stone being placed to a large stone that was sitting on the upper course of stone. So as the large stone descended over the hole the ropes would drag the skid block absorbing most of the kinetic energy of the large stones decent. After the stone was lowered, then the water would be lowered to allow the rest of the layer of stone to be placed around the large stone. However, filling of the hole and mounding with sand also may have been used in gable and arches.
3Book of the Dead cited in Hancock. G, Mirrors of Heaven, Op.Cite
Mankind’s Past is controversial with competing intellectual groups proudly holding on to differing traditions, each field of study believing that their traditions best chronicles the human race’s Past, these differing traditions are each held as undeniable FACTS. Howard West’s E-book, Locked Gates stands in opposition to those traditions by revealing contrary subject materials that have been hidden in ancient books, scrolls, geological, and archaeological records. This evidence shows a far different account of mankind’s distant Past and its approaching Future. To showcase this evidence found in the E-book, Locked Gates, West has produced a series of nine videos, The ninth book trailer, takes NASA to task revealing how it continues to present dis-information as undeniable truth, such as the documented lies that comets are dirty snow balls, the origins of the moon, Mars and its topography.
Who built the Great Pyramid?
GOD said a long time ago through Isaiah’s chapter 19:19-20
On that day there shall be an ALTAR to the LORD, In the midst of the Land of Egypt and a PILLAR at its Border to the LORD. And it shall be a sign and for wittiness to the Lord of Host in the land of Egypt.
That is the location of the GREAT PYRAMID!
I have given the details of the connections between the God of Abraham and the Great Pyramids in my book Locked Gates. A book that has been Black Listed by those who fear the Truth, therefore don’t expect to see a show on the DISCOVERY CHANNEL about this connection to GOD.
Isaiah said in his chapter 19 that this Pillar or pile of Rocks in Egypt became visible after
And the waters shall fail from the sea (of Egypt) and the river (Nile) shall be wasted and dried up!
The Sea now called the Sea of Nun, which the geological records of the Nile River Valley show suddenly and to most unexplainable appeared about 11,000BC during a time of regional drought. An inland sea that just as suddenly drained about 2141BC, the funny thing is most Egyptologists say the Great Pyramids were built when the valley was under water according to the geological records. (Hoffman, Michael A. Egypt Before the Pharaohs, Alfred A Knopf, 1979 New York) Do you understand? There was a huge lake there. Of course the geological record of this inland sea is never spoken of, because that does not match what God Haters want you believe!
Matthew 21:21Jesus answered…
“If ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea ; it shall be done.”
This is a cross reference to JOB’s explanation of the building of the Great Pyramid.
9. He shoots forth his power against the rock, he over turns the mountains from their foundation.
Therefore, he used the stones from the top of his quarry for the bottom of his new mountain his Pyramid.
11. He dams the river that it may not overflow:And the thing that is hid 
Under the irrigation water of the rising lake
He might bring forth “Light”
Here is a video on the construction of that Dam and the links to Early Pharaohs and Egyptian mythology.
If you want more evidence buy the book Locked Gates.
Before Egypt was known by the Greek name Egypt, Aigu-ptis which is derived from aigialos a sea (as in Aegean), and ptoeo to cause to flee away, Egypt’s ancient Semitic name was Metz-ra-yim the meaning of which is Metz the wall or fence, or Mitzad to capture, Ra the power, and Yim the river or sea.
There is now a second sea of Egypt called Lake Nasser and it too is scheduled to be drained! Cleansing EGYPT. After that great flood will you believe?
Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab,The Wall is Also Known as the Aswan Dam) and wounded the dragon?  (The waters of Lake Nasser/ the Nile)
10 dried the sea, the waters of the great deep; (Lake Nasser) a way for the ransomed to pass over?
10 Thou hast broken Rahab (The Wall Aka Aswan) in pieces, as one that is slain; thou hast scattered thine enemies with thy strong arm.
Ezekiel 29:2-12 2
Son of man set thy face against Pharaoh King of Egypt,
3 My (GOD’S) river is mine own, and I have made it for myself.
4 But I will put hooks in thy jaws, and I will cause the fish of thy rivers to stick unto thy scales,
5 And I will leave thee thrown into the wilderness, (The waters of lake Nasser drained) thee and all the fish of thy rivers: thou shalt fall upon the open fields; thou shalt not be brought together, nor gathered (After the dam bursts)
6 And all the inhabitants of Egypt shall know that I am the LORD,
8 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will bring a sword upon thee, and cut off man and beast out of thee.
When that huge Aswan dam is breached, a dam that is three hundred sixty four feet high, eleven thousand eight hundred and eight feet wide and holds back 125,600,000 cubic acre-feet of water what will be left of Egypt?
Strongs, James, Hebrew Dictionary of the Old Testament, Madison, NJ, 1890, Hebrew, no 79711
Ibid, no. 3028
Ibid, no.8587, 8585
Strongs, James, Greek Dictionary of the New Testament, Madison, NJ, 1890 G 125
Strongs, James, Hebrew Dictionary of the Old Testament, Madison, NJ, 1890 H,4714
Strongs, James, Hebrew Dictionary of the Old Testament, Madison, NJ, 1890 , H, 7292